FEATURE image: Joshua Commanding the Sun, Raphael, c.1515, fresco, Rome, Vatican. Public Domain.
Introduction by John P. Walsh.
Begins Israel’s story of the conquest of Canaan (1405 BCE)
The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in the Hebrew Bible. It is the same for Christians in the Old Testament. It is the first book of the Deuteronomistic history or the story of Israel from the conquest of Canaan (1404 BCE) to the Babylonian exile (586 BCE).
Types of writings in the Book of Joshua
Joshua contains many different kinds of highly synthesized and edited literary materials. These include battle narratives and various etiologies (explanations of customs, institutions, landmarks, etc.). From a literary perspective, these materials are thereby complex.
The Book of Joshua relates the military campaigns of the Israelites in central, southern and northern Canaan. It tells of the destruction of their enemies and the division of the land among the Twelve Tribes. These developments are conveyed by two set-pieces—the first by God commanding the conquest of the land (Chapter 1) and, the second, by Joshua exhorting the people to a faithful observance of the Law revealed to Moses (Chapter 23).
Completed in the 6th century BCE, the Book of Joshua relates historical and religious events from 800 years before
Is the Book of Joshua of historical value? Clearly historical, the Israelites gained control of Canaan—and the book relates that it was accomplished by a series of battle victories which is not unreasonable to presume. The book’s broad narrative is generally to be founded on history.
Myth and folklore do not substitute for historical fact
The Book of Joshua is not historically indisputable in its details presented as fact since it also contains many creations of the popular imagination or folklore. Literary criticism has revealed that when a meagerness of materials is present, the ancient compilers and editors did not elaborate based on simple or broad textual statements but moderated descriptions to available details.
Today’s modern archaeology, while able to provide insight into human activity in Canaan throughout this time period (13th century BCE and later), the historical quest to establish a clear, concrete connection to episodes mentioned in the Book of Joshua by such science can be hard to support.
Joshua is the book’s protagonist
The figure of Joshua in the role of significant military leader is integral to the narrative and found in the most ancient, original text (i.e., his role in the formation of the 12-tribe league at Shecham, Chapter 24), among other examples. All factors point to Joshua’s significant role in the conquest.
Primitive religious ideas such as “holy war” and collective guilt
In terms of the Book of Joshua’s religious aspects there are several layers of religious tradition that are held in common but with singular or special emphases. The book relates the conquest as an act of God. For man, the act of conquest or “holy war” was closely associated to an act of worship though that idea was based on an older, primitive religious practice that was not practiced at least by the time the Book of Joshua was completed in the mid6th century BCE. The Book of Joshua also conveys another religiously primitive idea–that of collective guilt (Chapter 7).
Primacy of Law and Covenant
Religious tradition is expressed in the ideas of God’s covenant and that morality is based on obedience to the Law as part of their close personal relationship to God. In chapters 13 to 21 which were added later, the book expresses God’s fidelity to the Israelites to the point of restoration of total possession of the land although while in exile that idea would be a dream. The idea of a future Israel that is restored was further embellished religiously—such as the 12 tribes gathered to worship at the sanctuary and providing carefully for its tribal priests (Chapter 22).
Joshua’s speech ends the book with a warning about the future (Chapter 23) though the following and last chapter added later ends differently. In that last chapter the people of Israel proclaim their choice to serve God (Joshua 24:24) and that the choice of Israel to be in relationship with God is a free one (24:15). The narrative of the Book of Joshua closes with Joshua’s death at the age of 110 years old and his burial among the heritage of the descendants of Joseph (24: 29, 32).
SOURCES: The Jerome Biblical Commentary, edited by Raymond E. Brown, S.S., Joseph A Fitzmeyer, S.J., and Roland E. Murphy, O. Carm., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1968.
The New American Bible, Catholic Book Publishing Corp, New York, 1993.
1 [T]he LORD said to Moses’ aide Joshua, son of Nun: 2 Moses my servant is dead. So now, you and the whole people with you, prepare to cross the Jordan to the land that I will give the Israelites. 3 Every place where you set foot I have given you, as I promised Moses. Joshua 1: 2-3.
6 [The LORD said…]Be strong and steadfast, so that you may give this people possession of the land I swore to their ancestors that I would give them. 7 Only be strong and steadfast, being careful to observe the entire law which Moses my servant enjoined on you. Do not swerve from it either to the right or to the left, that you may succeed wherever you go. Joshua 1:6-7.
9 [The LORD said…] I command you: be strong and steadfast! Do not fear nor be dismayed, for the LORD, your God, is with you wherever you go. Joshua 1: 9.
10 For we have heard how the LORD dried up the waters of the Red Sea before you when you came out of Egypt,and what you did to Sihon and Og, the two kings of the Amorites beyond the Jordan, whom you destroyed under the ban. 11 We heard, and our hearts melted within us; everyone is utterly dispirited because of you, since the LORD, your God, is God in heaven above and on earth below.Joshua 2:10-11.
23 Then the two [spies sent by Joshua] came back down from the hills, crossed the Jordan to Joshua, son of Nun, and told him all that had happened to them. 24 They assured Joshua, “The LORD has given all this land into our power; indeed, all the inhabitants of the land tremble with fear because of us.” Joshua 2: 23-24.
5 Joshua also said to the people, “Sanctify yourselves, for tomorrow the LORD will perform wonders among you.” Joshua 3:5.
7 Then the LORD said to Joshua: Today I will begin to exalt you in the sight of all Israel, that they may know that, as I was with Moses, so I will be with you. Joshua 3:7.
10 He continued: “By this you will know that there is a living God in your midst: he will certainly dispossess before you the Canaanites, Hittites, Hivites, Perizzites, Girgashites, Amorites, and Jebusites. Joshua 3:10.
11 The ark of the covenant of the Lord of the whole earth will cross the Jordan before you….13 When the soles of the feet of the priests carrying the ark of the LORD, the Lord of the whole earth, touch the waters of the Jordan, it will cease to flow; the water flowing down from upstream will halt in a single heap.” Joshua 3:11,13.
14 The people set out from their tents to cross the Jordan, with the priests carrying the ark of the covenant ahead of them….16 Thus the people crossed over opposite Jericho. Joshua 3: 14, 16.
5 Joshua said to them: “Go to the Jordan riverbed in front of the ark of the LORD, your God; lift to your shoulders one stone apiece, so that they will equal in number the tribes of the Israelites. 6 In the future, these are to be a sign among you. When your children ask you,‘What do these stones mean to you?’ 7 you shall answer them, ‘The waters of the Jordan ceased to flow before the ark of the covenant of the LORD when it crossed the Jordan.’d Thus these stones are to serve as a perpetual memorial to the Israelites.” Joshua 4: 5-7.
11 When all the people had completed the crossing, the ark of the LORD also crossed; and the priests were now in front of them. 12 The Reubenites, Gadites, and half-tribe of Manasseh, armed, marched in the vanguard of the Israelites, as Moses had ordered. 13 About forty thousand troops, equipped for battle, crossed over before the LORD to the plains of Jericho for war. Joshua 4: 11-13.
14 That day the LORD exalted Joshua in the sight of all Israel, and so during his whole life they feared him as they had feared Moses. Joshua 4: 14.
17 Joshua commanded the priests, “Come up from the Jordan,” 18 and when the priests carrying the ark of the covenant of the LORD had come up from the Jordan riverbed, as the soles of their feet regained the dry ground, the waters of the Jordan resumed their course and as before overflowed all its banks. 19 The people came up from the Jordan on the tenth day of the first month, and camped in Gilgal on the eastern limits of Jericho. Joshua 4: 17-19.
22 ‘Israel crossed the Jordan here on dry ground.’ 23 For the LORD, your God, dried up the waters of the Jordan in front of you until you crossed over, just as the LORD, your God, had done at the Red Sea, drying it up in front of us until we crossed over, 24 in order that all the peoples of the earth may know that the hand of the LORD is mighty, and that you may fear the LORD, your God, forever.” Joshua 4: 22-24.
2 On this occasion the LORD said to Joshua: Make flint knives and circumcise Israel for the second time. 3 So Joshua made flint knives and circumcised the Israelites at Gibeath-haaraloth. Joshua 5:2-3.
5 Though all the men who came out [of Egypt] were circumcised, none of those born in the wilderness during the journey after the departure from Egypt were circumcised….7 It was the children God raised up in their stead whom Joshua circumcised, for these were yet with foreskins, not having been circumcised on the journey. 8 When the circumcision of the entire nation was complete, they remained in camp where they were, until they recovered. Joshua 5: 5; 7-8.
10 While the Israelites were encamped at Gilgal on the plains of Jericho, they celebrated the Passover on the evening of the fourteenth day of the month….12 [A]fter they ate of the produce of the land, the manna ceased. No longer was there manna for the Israelites, who that year ate of the yield of the land of Canaan. Joshua 5: 10,12.
13 While Joshua was near Jericho, he raised his eyes and saw one who stood facing him, drawn sword in hand.h Joshua went up to him and asked, “Are you one of us or one of our enemies?” 14 He replied, “Neither. I am the commander* of the army of the LORD: now I have come.” Then Joshua fell down to the ground in worship, and said to him, “What has my lord to say to his servant?” Joshua 5: 13-14.
15 The commander of the army of the LORD replied to Joshua, “Remove your sandals from your feet, for the place on which you are standing is holy.” And Joshua did so. Joshua 5: 15.
2 And to Joshua the LORD said: I have delivered Jericho, its king, and its warriors into your power. 3 Have all the soldiers circle the city, marching once around it. Do this for six days, 4 with seven priests carrying ram’s horns ahead of the ark. On the seventh day march around the city seven times, and have the priests blow the horns. 5 When they give a long blast on the ram’s horns and you hear the sound of the horn, all the people shall shout aloud. The wall of the city will collapse, and the people shall attack straight ahead. Joshua 6: 2-5.
16 The seventh time around, the priests blew the horns and Joshua said to the people, “Now shout, for the LORD has given you the city. 17 The city and everything in it is under the ban. Only Rahab the prostitute and all who are in the house with her are to live, because she hid the messengers we sent. Joshua 6: 16-17.
20 As the horns blew, the people began to shout. When they heard the sound of the horn, they raised a tremendous shout. The wall collapsed, and the people attacked the city straight ahead and took it. 21 They observed the ban by putting to the sword all living creaturese in the city: men and women, young and old, as well as oxen, sheep and donkeys. Joshua 6: 20-21.
24 The city itself they burned with all that was in it; but the silver, gold, and articles of bronze and iron they placed in the treasury of the house of the LORD. 25 Because Rahab the prostitute had hidden the messengers whom Joshua had sent to reconnoiter Jericho, Joshua let her live, along with her father’s house and all her family, who dwell in the midst of Israel to this day. Joshua 6: 24-25.
1 But the Israelites acted treacherously with regard to the ban; Achan, son of Carmi, son of Zabdi, son of Zerah of the tribe of Judah, took goods that were under the ban, and the anger of the LORD flared up against the Israelites. Joshua 7:1.
2 Joshua next sent men from Jericho to Ai, which is near Beth-aven and east of Bethel…4 About three thousand of the people made the attack, but they fled before the army at Ai…
7 “Alas, Lord GOD,” Joshua prayed, “why did you ever allow this people to cross over the Jordan, delivering us into the power of the Amorites, that they might destroy us? Would that we had been content to dwell on the other side of the Jordan. 8 Please, Lord, what can I say, now that Israel has turned its back to its enemies?
10 The LORD replied to Joshua: Stand up. Why are you lying there? Joshua 7:10.
13 Get up, sanctify the people. Tell them, “Sanctify yourselves before tomorrow, for thus says the LORD, the God of Israel: That which is banned is in your midst, Israel. You cannot stand up to your enemies until you remove it from among you.
20 Achan answered Joshua, “I have indeed sinned against the LORD, the God of Israel. This is what I have done: 21 Among the spoils, I saw a beautiful Babylonian mantle, two hundred shekels of silver, and a bar of gold fifty shekels in weight; I coveted them and I took them. They are now hidden in the ground inside my tent, with the silver underneath.” Joshua 7: 20-21.
25 Joshua said, “What misery have you caused us? May the LORD bring misery upon you today!” And all Israel stoned him to death. They burnt them with fire and they stoned them. Joshua 7.25.
1 The LORD then said to Joshua: Do not be afraid or dismayed. Take all the army with you and prepare to attack Ai. I have delivered the king of Ai into your power, with his people, city, and land. 2 Do to Ai and its king what you did to Jericho and its king—except that you may take its spoil and livestock as plunder. Set an ambush behind the city. Joshua 8:1-2.
3 So Joshua and all the soldiers prepared to attack Ai. Picking out thirty thousand warriors, Joshua sent them off by night 4 with these orders: “See that you ambush the city from the rear…” Joshua 8: 3-4.
14 The king of Ai saw this, and he and all his army came out very early in the morning to engage Israel in battle at the place in front of the Arabah, not knowing that there was an ambush behind the city. Joshua 8:14.
18 Then the LORD directed Joshua: Stretch out the javelin in your hand toward Ai, for I will deliver it into your power. Joshua stretched out the javelin in his hand toward the city, 19 and as soon as he did so, the men in ambush rose from their post, rushed in, captured the city, and immediately set it on fire. Joshua 8: 18-19.
22 Since those in the city came out to intercept them, Ai’s army was hemmed in by Israelites on both sides, who cut them down without any fugitives or survivors 23 except the king, whom they took alive and brought to Joshua. Joshua 8: 22-23.
25 There fell that day a total of twelve thousand men and women, the entire population of Ai. Joshua 8: 25.
29 Then Joshua had the king of Ai hanged on a tree until evening; then at sunset Joshua ordered the body removed from the tree and cast at the entrance of the city gate, where a great heap of stones was piled up over it, which remains to the present day. Joshua 8:29.
30 Later, on Mount Ebal, Joshua built to the LORD, the God of Israel, an altar Joshua 8:30.
1 When the news reached all the kings west of the Jordan, in the mountain regions and in the Shephelah, and all along the coast of the Great Sea as far as the Lebanon: Hittites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites, 2 they gathered together to form an alliance against Joshua and Israel. Joshua 9: 1-2.
22 Joshua summoned the Gibeonites and said to them, “Why did you deceive us and say, ‘We live far off from you’?—You live among us!…24 They answered Joshua, “Your servants were fully informed of how the LORD, your God, commanded Moses his servant that you be given the entire land and that all its inhabitants be destroyed before you. Since, therefore, at your advance, we were in great fear for our lives, we acted as we did. Joshua 9: 22, 24.
25 And now that we are in your power, do with us what is good and right in your eyes.”
26 Joshua did what he had decided: while he saved them from being killed by the Israelites,
27 on that day he made them, as they still are, hewers of wood and drawers of water for the community and for the altar of the LORD, in the place the LORD would choose. Joshua 9: 25-27.
3 So Adonizedek, king of Jerusalem, sent to Hoham, king of Hebron, Piram, king of Jarmuth, Japhia, king of Lachish, and Debir, king of Eglon, with this message:
4 “Come and help me attack Gibeon, for it has made peace with Joshua and the Israelites.” Joshua 10: 3-4.
5 The five Amorite kings, of Jerusalem, Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, and Eglon,* gathered with all their forces, and marched against Gibeon to make war on it.
6 Thereupon, the Gibeonites sent an appeal to Joshua in his camp at Gilgal: “Do not abandon your servants. Come up here quickly and save us. Help us, because all the Amorite kings of the mountain country have joined together against us.” Joshua 10: 5-6.
11 While they fled before Israel along the descent of Beth-horon, the LORD hurled great stones from the heavens above them all the way to Azekah, killing many. More died from these hailstones than the Israelites killed with the sword. Joshua 10:11.
12 It was then, when the LORD delivered up the Amorites to the Israelites, that Joshua prayed to the LORD, and said in the presence of Israel: Sun, stand still at Gibeon, Moon, in the valley of Aijalon! 13 The sun stood still, the moon stayed, while the nation took vengeance on its foes. Joshua 10:12-13.
In this epic, densely populated work, John Martin depicts the biblical battle at Gibeon, part of the conquest of Canaan. Joshua, as leader of the Israelites, asks God to cause the moon and the sun to stand still so that he and his army might continue fighting by daylight. God further assists Joshua by calling up a powerful storm to bombard the Canaanites with rain and hailstones. The British artist, John Martin (1789-1854), combines the genres of history and landscape painting in this work by giving equal compositional space and artistic attention to both the human narrative and the dramatic natural surroundings.
16 The five kings who had fled hid in the cave at Makkedah.
17 When Joshua was told, “The five kings have been found, hiding in the cave at Makkedah,”
18 he said, “Roll large stones to the mouth of the cave and post guards over it.
19 But do not remain there yourselves. Pursue your enemies, and harry them in the rear. Joshua 10: 16-19.
24When they brought the five kings out to Joshua, he summoned all the army of Israel and said to the commanders of the soldiers who had marched with him, “Come forward and put your feet on the necks of these kings.” They came forward and put their feet upon their necks. 25Then Joshua said to them, “Do not be afraid or dismayed, be firm and steadfast. This is what the LORD will do to all the enemies against whom you fight.” 26Thereupon Joshua struck and killed the kings, and hanged them on five trees, where they remained hanging until evening. Joshua 10: 24-26.
27 At sunset Joshua commanded that they be taken down from the trees and be thrown into the cave where they had hidden; over the mouth of the cave large stones were placed, which remain until this very day. Joshua 10: 27.
40 Joshua conquered the entire land; the mountain regions, the Negeb, the Shephelah, and the mountain slopes, with all their kings. He left no survivors, but put under the ban every living being, just as the LORD, the God of Israel, had commanded. Joshua 10:40.
42 All these kings and their lands Joshua captured all at once, for the LORD, the God of Israel, fought for Israel. Johua 10:42.
Joshua was successor to Moses, who led the Israelites through the Desert and into the Promised Land. Canaan, however, was inhabited by other tribes. According to the Book of Joshua, the Amorites lived on the east bank of the River Jordan and in the region between the Dead Sea and Hebron. Joshua defeated the Amorites in a series of battles. see – https://www.artbible.info/art/large/139.html
4 [The northern kings] came out with all their troops, an army numerous as the sands on the seashore, and with a multitude of horses and chariots. 5 All these kings made a pact and together they marched to the waters of Merom, where they encamped to fight against Israel. Joshua 11: 4-5.
7 Joshua with his whole army came upon them suddenly at the waters of Merom and fell upon them. 8 The LORD delivered them into the power of the Israelites, who defeated them and pursued them to Greater Sidon, to Misrephoth-maim,d and eastward to the valley of Mizpeh. They struck them all down, leaving no survivors. Joshua 11:7-8.
15 As the LORD had commanded his servant Moses, so Moses commanded Joshua, and Joshua acted accordingly. He left nothing undone that the LORD had commanded Moses should be done. Joshua 11:15.
18 Joshua waged war against all these kings for a long time. 19 With the exception of the Hivites who lived in Gibeon, no city made peace with the Israelites; all were taken in battle. Joshua 11:18-19.
23 Thus Joshua took the whole land, just as the LORD had said to Moses. Joshua gave it to Israel as their heritage, apportioning it among the tribes. And the land had rest from war. Joshua 11:23.
1 These are the kings of the land whom the Israelites conquered and whose lands they occupied, east of the Jordan, from the River Arnon to Mount Hermon, including all the eastern section of the Arabah: 2 First, Sihon, king of the Amorites, who lived in Heshbon. His domain extended from Aroer, which is on the bank of the Wadi Arnon, to include the wadi itself, and the land northward through half of Gilead to the Wadi Jabbok at the border with the Ammonites, 3 as well as the Arabah from the eastern side of the Sea of Chinnereth, as far south as the eastern side of the Salt Sea of the Arabah in the direction of Beth-jeshimoth, southward under the slopes of Pisgah. Joshua 12: 1-3.
6 It was Moses, the servant of the LORD, and the Israelites who conquered them; Moses, the servant of the LORD, gave possession of their land to the Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh. Joshua 12:6.
1 When Joshua was old and advanced in years, the LORD said to him: Though now you are old and advanced in years, a very large part of the land still remains to be possessed. Joshua 13:1.
7 Now, therefore, apportion among the nine tribes and the half-tribe of Manasseh the land which is to be their heritage. 8 Now the other half of the tribe of Manasseh, as well as the Reubenites and Gadites, had taken as their heritage what Moses, the servant of the LORD, had given them east of the Jordan. Joshua 13:7-8.
14 However, Moses assigned no heritage to the tribe of Levi; the LORD, the God of Israel, is their heritage, as the LORD had promised them. Joshua 13:14.
1 These are the portions which the Israelites received as heritage in the land of Canaan. Eleazar the priest, Joshua, son of Nun, and the heads of families in the tribes of the Israelites determined 2 their heritage by lot, as the LORD had commanded through Moses concerning the remaining nine and a half tribes. Joshua 14: 1-2.
6 When the Judahites approached Joshua in Gilgal, the Kenizzite Caleb, son of Jephunneh, said to him….10 Now, as he promised, the LORD has preserved me these forty-five years since the LORD spoke thus to Moses while Israel journeyed in the wilderness; and now I am eighty-five years old, 11 but I am still as strong today as I was the day Moses sent me forth, with no less vigor whether it be for war or for any other tasks. 12 Now give me this mountain region which the LORD promised me that day, as you yourself heard. Joshua 14: 6; 10-12.
13 Joshua blessed Caleb, son of Jephunneh, and gave him Hebron as his heritage. 14 Therefore Hebron remains the heritage of the Kenizzite Caleb, son of Jephunneh, to the present day, because he was completely loyal to the LORD, the God of Israel. Joshua 14: 13-14.
16 Caleb said, “To the man who attacks Kiriath-sepher and captures it, I will give my daughter Achsah in marriage.” 17 Othniel captured it, the son of Caleb’s brother Kenaz; so Caleb gave him his daughter Achsah in marriage. Joshua 15: 16-17.
18 When she came to him, she induced him to ask her father for some land. Then, as she alighted from the donkey, Caleb asked her, “What do you want?” 19 She answered, “Give me a present! Since you have assigned to me land in the Negeb, give me also pools of water.” So he gave her the upper and the lower pools. Joshua 15: 18-19.
10 [The Josephites] did not dispossess the Canaanites living in Gezer; they live within Ephraim to the present day, though they have been put to forced labor. Joshua 16:10.
12 Since the Manassites were not able to dispossess these cities, the Canaanites continued to inhabit this region. 13 When the Israelites grew stronger they put the Canaanites to forced labor, but they did not dispossess them. Joshua 17: 12-13.
14 The descendants of Joseph said to Joshua, “Why have you given us only one lot and one share as our heritage? Our people are too many, because of the extent to which the LORD has blessed us.” Joshua 17: 14.
17 Joshua therefore said to Ephraim and Manasseh, the house of Joseph, “You are a numerous people and very strong. You shall not have merely one share, 18 for the mountain region which is now forest shall be yours when you clear it. Its adjacent land shall also be yours if, despite their strength and iron chariots, you dispossess the Canaanites.” Joshua 17: 17-18.
1 The whole community of the Israelites assembled at Shiloh, where they set up the tent of meeting; and the land was subdued before them. Joshua 18: 1.
2 There remained seven tribes among the Israelites that had not yet received their heritage. 3 Joshua therefore said to the Israelites, “How much longer will you put off taking steps to possess the land which the LORD, the God of your ancestors, has given you? Joshua 18: 2-3.
4 Choose three representatives from each of your tribes; I will send them to go throughout the land and describe it for purposes of acquiring their heritage. When they return to me 5 you shall divide it into seven parts. Judah is to retain its territory in the south, and the house of Joseph its territory in the north. Joshua 18: 4-5.
6 You shall bring to me here the description of the land in seven sections. I will then cast lots for you here before the LORD, our God. 7 For the Levites have no share among you because the priesthood of the LORD is their heritage; while Gad, Reuben, and the half-tribe of Manasseh have already received the heritage east of the Jordan which Moses, the servant of the LORD, gave them.” Joshua 18: 6-7.
1 The second lot fell to Simeon. The heritage of the tribe of Simeonites by their clans lay within that of the Judahites. 2 For their heritage they received Beer-sheba, Shema, Moladah, 3 Hazar-shual, Balah, Ezem, 4 Eltolad, Bethul, Hormah, 5 Ziklag, Bethmar-caboth, Hazar-susah, 6 Beth-lebaoth, and Sharuhen; thirteen cities and their villages. 7 Also Ain, Rimmon, Ether, and Ashan; four cities and their villages, 8 besides all the villages around these cities as far as Baalath-beer (that is, Ramoth-negeb). This was the heritage of the tribe of the Simeonites by their clans. 9 This heritage of the Simeonites was within the confines of the Judahites; for since the portion of the latter was too large for them, the Simeonites obtained their heritage within it. Joshua 19: 1-8.
10 The third lot fell to the Zebulunites by their clans. The boundary of their heritage was at Sarid. Joshua 19:10.
17 The fourth lot fell to Issachar. The territory of the Issacharites by their clans 18 included Jezreel, Chesulloth, Shunem, 19 Hapharaim, Shion, Anaharath, 20 Rabbith, Kishion, Ebez, 21 Remeth, En-gannim, En-haddah, and Beth-pazzez. 22 The boundary reached Tabor, Shahazumah, and Beth-shemesh, ending at the Jordan: sixteen cities and their villages. 23 This was the heritage of the Issacharites by their clans, these cities and their villages. Joshua 19: 17-23.
24 The fifth lot fell to the Asherites by their clans. Joshua 19: 24.
32 The sixth lot fell to the Naphtalites. Joshua 19: 32.
40 The seventh lot fell to the tribe of Danites by their clans. Joshua 19:40.
49 When the last of them had received the portions of the land they were to inherit, the Israelites assigned a heritage in their midst to Joshua, son of Nun. 50 According to the command of the LORD, they gave him the city he requested, Timnah-serahf in the mountain region of Ephraim. He rebuilt the city and made it his home. Joshua 19: 49-50.
4 To one of these cities the killer shall flee, and standing at the entrance of the city gate, shall plead his case in the hearing of the elders of the city, who must receive him and assign him a place in which to live among them. 5 Though the avenger of blood pursues him, they shall not deliver up to him the one who killed a neighbor unintentionally, when there had been no hatred previously. Joshua 20: 4-5.
7 So they set apart Kedesh in Galilee in the mountain region of Naphtali, Shechem in the mountain region of Ephraim, and Kiriath-arba (that is, Hebron) in the mountain region of Judah. 8 And beyond the Jordan east of Jericho they designated Bezer in the wilderness on the tableland in the tribe of Reuben, Ramoth in Gilead in the tribe of Gad, and Golan in Bashan in the tribe of Manasseh. 9 These are the designated cities to which any Israelite or alien residing among them who had killed a person unintentionally might flee to escape death at the hand of the avenger of blood, until the killer could appear before the community. Joshua 20: 7-9.
1 The heads of the Levite families approached Eleazar the priest, Joshua, son of Nun, and the heads of families of the other tribes of the Israelitesa 2 at Shiloh in the land of Canaan, and said to them, “The LORD commanded, through Moses, that cities be given us to dwell in, with pasture lands for our livestock.” 3 Out of their own heritage, according to the command of the LORD, the Israelites gave the Levites the following cities with their pasture lands. Joshua 21:1-3.
41 Thus the total number of cities within the territory of the Israelites which, with their pasture lands, belonged to the Levites, was forty-eight. 42 With each and every one of these cities went the pasture lands round about it. Joshua 21: 41-42.
43 And so the LORD gave Israel the entire land he had sworn to their ancestors he would give them.k Once they had taken possession of it, and dwelt in it, 44 the LORD gave them peace on every side, just as he had promised their ancestors. Not one of their enemies could withstand them; the LORD gave all their enemies into their power. 45 Not a single word of the blessingl that the LORD had promised to the house of Israel failed; it all came true. Joshua 21: 43-45.
4 Now that the LORD, your God, has settled your allies as he promised them, you may return to your tents, to your own land, which Moses, the servant of the LORD, gave you, across the Jordan. 5 But be very careful to observe the commandment and the law which Moses, the servant of the LORD, commanded you: love the LORD, your God, follow him in all his ways, keep his commandments, hold fast to him, and serve him with your whole heart and your whole self.” Joshua 22: 4-5.
6 Joshua then blessed them and sent them away, and they went to their tents. Joshua 22: 6.
10 When the Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh came to the region of the Jordan in the land of Canaan, they built an altar there at the Jordan, an impressively large altar. Joshua 22:10.
19 [Thus says the whole community of the LORD:] If you consider the land you now possess unclean, cross over to the land the LORD possesses, where the tabernacle of the LORD stands, and share that with us. But do not rebel against the LORD, nor involve us in rebellion, by building an altar of your own in addition to the altar of the LORD, our God. Joshua 22:19.
24 [The Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh replied to the heads of the Israelite clans:] We did it rather out of our anxious concern lest in the future your children should say to our children: ‘What have you to do with the LORD, the God of Israel? Joshua 22:24.
31 Phinehas, son of Eleazar the priest, said to the Reubenites, the Gadites, and the Manassites, “Today we know that the LORD is in our midst. Since you have not rebelled against the LORD by this act of treachery, you have delivered the Israelites from the hand of the LORD.” Joshua 22: 31.
33 The report satisfied the Israelites, who blessed God and decided not to take military action against the Reubenites and Gadites nor to ravage the land where they lived. 34 The Reubenites and the Gadites gave the altar its name as a witness among them that the LORD is God. Joshua 22: 33-34.
1 Many years later…2 [Joshua] summoned all Israel, including their elders, leaders, judges, and officers, and said to them: “I am old and advanced in years. 3 You have seen all that the LORD, your God, has done for you against all these nations; for it has been the LORD, your God, who fought for you. Joshua 23: 1-3.
4 [Joshua said:] See, I have apportioned among your tribes as their heritage the nations that survive, as well as those I destroyed, between the Jordan and the Great Sea in the west. 5 The LORD, your God, will drive them out and dispossess them at your approach, so that you will take possession of their land as the LORD, your God, promised you. Joshua 23:4-5.
6 Therefore be strong and be careful to observe all that is written in the book of the law of Moses, never turning from it right or left, 7 or mingling with these nations that survive among you. You must not invoke their gods by name, or swear by them, or serve them, or bow down to them, 8 but you must hold fast to the LORD, your God, as you have done up to this day. Joshua 23: 6-8.
10 One of you puts to flight a thousand, because it is the LORD, your God, himself who fights for you, as he promised you. 11 As for you, take great care to love the LORD, your God. Joshua 23: 10-11.
15 [Joshua addressed all the people:] If it is displeasing to you to serve the LORD, choose today whom you will serve, the gods your ancestors served beyond the River or the gods of the Amorites in whose country you are dwelling. As for me and my household, we will serve the LORD.” Joshua 24: 15.
29 After these events, Joshua, son of Nun, servant of the LORD, died at the age of a hundred and ten, 30 and they buried him within the borders of his heritage at Timnath-serahu in the mountain region of Ephraim north of Mount Gaash. Joshua 24: 29-30.