Tag Archives: Charles-François Daubigny

Nadar’s Photographic Portraits.

 

By John P. Walsh

Nadar was born on April 6, 1820 to 26-year-old Thérèse Maillet and 49-year-old Victor Tournachon at 195 rue Saint-Honoré in Paris. His parents didn’t marry until 1826. After Gaspard-Félix (Nadar’s birth name) was born his parents moved to 26 rue de Richelieu. A younger brother, Adrien, was born in 1825. In an age of political censorship, Victor Tournachon’s printing business began to decline and the family moved again to 45 rue Saint-André-des-Arts on the Left Bank. Tournachon brothers’ upbringing was marked by this financial difficulty of their father, especially after the July Revolution in 1830. After Victor Tournachon closed his business in 1833 he moved with his family to Lyon. Gaspard-Félix stayed in school at Versailles where he started his creative writing and had a natural inkling for making friends.  His school career effectively ended in 1837 when his father died and Gaspard-Félix moved to Lyon. Though he started medical studies with the idea of supporting his mother and brother, it belied his active interest in journalism.

In 1838, Gaspard-Félix returned to Paris. Into the 1840’s his expanding circle of friends became his new family where his nickname of Nadar began to evolve and he started a journalism career working for up-and-down literary publications, writing reviews and short stories, and drawing caricatures. Throughout the 1840’s he traveled in bohemian literary circles, made the rounds of Paris cafés and met a string of artists, writers, critics and poets such as Gérard de Nerval (1808-1855), Charles Baudelaire (1821-1867) and Théodore de Banville (1823-1891) – all of whom became subjects for Nadar’s photography. Part of the reward for this aesthetic conviction was to spend time in a Paris debtor’s prison at the start of the 1850’s. While Nadar’s literary and artistic activities continued for the next forty years he also remained a type of eccentric politically-radical bohemian even after he was rich and famous.

Mid-nineteenth-century Paris was a city in upheaval both politically and physically. The Revolution of 1848 ended up toppling the constitutional monarchy and replacing it with a second republic. Georges-Eugène, Baron Haussmann’s renovation of Paris literally turned over the old city.  These developments perfectly mirrored Nadar’s character to be restlessly innovative, curious, energetic, concrete, and persuasive. In a writing career that worked in the burgeoning literary world of newspapers, magazines, journals, gazettes, etc., and, as the press was starkly partisan, Nadar encountered many personalities who favored the liberal side of the political and cultural spectrum. By way of a journal for which he was editor in chief, Nadar in 1839, met Honoré de Balzac. An active member of the Société des gens de lettres since 1844, Nadar connected to the professional literary group for friends, funds and more writing opportunities, mainly short pieces for periodicals.  Nadar never became disenchanted with writing or wanting to be a literary celebrity, but starting in 1844, began to augment his skills and income by publishing caricatures. He made sketches and drawings for a short-lived Journal du dimanche, the influential Le Charivari, an antisocialist Le Journal, a new weekly La Revue comique, and also Journal pour rire (which became Journal amusant), Tintamarre, Illustrated London News, and Count Charles de Villedeuil’s L’Éclair. Nadar’s success as a draughtsman – as well as his intuitive grasp of the emerging celebrity culture in Paris – led to the establishment in 1850 of the first studio under the Nadar brand name. Patronage for his caricatures allowed him in 1854 to move to 13 rue Saint-Lazare with his mother who, with Adrien, had returned to Paris in 1845.  This address eventually served as Nadar’s photographic studio. When Nadar began his photographic services career there was a handful of professional photographers in Paris. By 1870, around the time Nadar exited the full-time profession in 1873, there were many hundreds. Nadar was at the start of a cultural sensation. Practicing a new and exciting medium, the photographer still held an undetermined and possibly precarious socio-economical position in Paris –was he an artist or technician? Was Nadar’s photographic services installed in what should be called a studio or shop?

Nadar married Ernestine-Constance Lefèvre (1836-1909) in 1854, a woman half his age, who fully supported her husband’s photographic venture. His young wife was one of his first—and final–photographic models. Nadar’s portraits included a wide range of sitters, many of whom were bohemian friends and notable personalities of his day. Nadar who for years had made portrait caricatures of celebrities such as in his lithographic project, Panthéon Nadar, now took their photographic portraits. A large number of Nadar portraits included painters, sculptors, actors, writers, historians, philosophers, politicians, journalists, and musicians as well as the public bourgeois clientele. The subject Nadar photographed the most was Nadar himself.  A sitter would be welcomed into the outdoor courtyard on rue Saint-Lazare which served as Nadar’s studio. His first work was often done in the natural light that achieved a high contrast between light and dark on the sitter’s features. Like in a theatrical production, sitters were costumed by Nadar in place of their street clothes which worked to generalize their social position and contemporaneity. Using plain dark backgrounds and no props to begin, Nadar’s portraits are spare. Another key practice by Nadar to achieve a successful portrait is the photographer’s skillful lighting of the sitter. From the mid1850s until the early 1870s Nadar’s relaxed and easy style inviting friends and celebrities into his studio for portraits resulted in a sympathetic rapport between a seductive and energetic photographer and his trusting and extemporaneous subjects enthusiastically interacting to produce these portraits.

Adrien learned how to take photographs from Gustave Le Gray (1820-1884). Le Gray, who was the same age as Nadar, was already one the most important photographers of his time. Adrien first set up photographic services with his older brother taking portraits. Yet Adrien and Le Gray remained contacts for Nadar only through the 1850s: Le Gray fled France in 1860 because of creditors and the brothers split professionally in a lawsuit brought by Nadar and decided in 1859. In April 1860 Nadar took over renting Le Gray’s sumptuous studio at 35, rue des Capucines and expanded it with an iron-and-glass penthouse which opened in September 1861. This became Nadar’s fashionable quarters until 1872 when he retired and, in 1873, left a thriving photographic business to his son, Paul Nadar. In 1861 the new establishment, lavish and sporting its famous outdoor sign “Nadar,” one of its unforgettable modern notes made by 21-year-old Antoine Lumière (1840-1911), was packaged to attract the urban bourgeois. Nadar also looked to charge high prices based on his appeal as an anti-establishment photographer who sometimes took erotic photographs and always cultivated Paris’s society of artists and political radicals.

At the new studio his photographs were more polished than his and Adrien’s work on rue Saint-Lazare in the 1850’s. Nadar took photographs of Sarah Bernhardt (1844-1923) and George Sand (1804-1876) in several sittings. Nadar was a man of constant curiosity and enthusiasm which led to creative innovations in taking photographs. In addition to portraiture, Nadar used artificial light to photography the Paris catacombs in 1864. For anyone who has visited this underground necropolis, it is naturally always pitch dark. The Paris sewers, a modern marvel, also attracted Nadar’s camera and artificial lighting. The first aerial photographs in history were taken by Nadar when he hooked up a gondola to a balloon and lifted into the air over Paris in 1865. It promoted both the cause of human flight and his photography business. During the seige of 1870, Nadar took to the air again with his camera for patriotic reasons.

SOURCES:

The Great Nadar: The Man Behind the Camera, Adam Begley, Tim Duggan Books, NY, 2017.

Nadar: Gaspard-Félix Tournachon (55), James H. Rubin, Phaidon Press, 2001.

The World of Proust as seen by Paul Nadar, edited by Anne-Marie Bernard, The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2002.

Nadar, Maria Morris Hambourg, Françoise Helibrun, Philippe Neagu, et.al., Harry N. Abrams, 1995.

Nadar self portrait 1854Nadar, Self Portrait, 1854. 

Nadar self portraitNadar, Self Portrait, 1855. 

nadar-35-boulevard-des-capucines
Nadar, atelier at 35, boulevard des Capucines, c. 1861. 

THE PHOTOGRAPHS:

Nadars
The Nadars, c. 1864. Paul Nadar (1856-1939), Gaspard-Félix Nadar (1820-1910), Ernestine-Constance Nadar née Lefèvre (1836-1909).

de nerval

Nadar (and Adrien Tournachon), Gérard de Nerval (1808-1855), 1855. The poet played a major role in introducing French readers to the works of German Romantic authors, including Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock (1724-1803), Gottfried August Bürger (1747-1804), Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) and Friedrich von Schiller (1759-1805). His own poetry was a major influence on Marcel Proust (1871-1922), André Breton (1896-1966), and the avant-garde movement of Surrealism in 1920’s that sought to release the creative potential of the unconscious mind. Nadar claimed that Nerval sat for him just once and only days before the bohemian poet committed suicide.

Charles Baudelaire
Nadar, Charles Baudelaire (1821-1867), 1855. In an early portrait by Nadar, his friend Baudelaire reclines in an armchair with an intense and dreamy gaze. The poet and critic was involved in producing poems to be published in 1859 as Les Fleurs du mal. Baudelaire’s critique of photography was its negative impact on judgement and feeling of the beautiful.

Charles Baudelaire
Nadar, Charles Baudelaire (1821-1867), 1855. The lumpy coat is likely a costume provided by Nadar that helps contrast the sitter’s slim frame and fine facial features.  The formal gesture of the right hand inside the coat, a pose known in Ancient Greece to indicate good manners, had appeared in eighteenth century art to establish calm and deliberation in its subject so posed. Baudelaire’s left hand in the pocket is informal and could intentionally serve to undermine or mock the classical gesture.

baudelaireNadar, Baudelaire, c. 1856. 

baudlelaire 1857Nadar, Baudelaire, c. 1857.

Baudelaire 1862Nadar, Charles Baudelaire (1821-1867), c. 1862. Rather than dreamy, Baudelaire’s expression — mouth turned down, eyes gleaming — is defiant and the pose is stern but whimsical.

Baudelaire c. 1862
Nadar, Charles Baudelaire (1821-1867), c. 1862.

Théodore de BanvilleNadar, Théodore de Banville (1823-1891). Banville was a French poet , writer and critic who was a leader of the Parnassians and whose work was later influential on French Symbolism. His first book of verse, Les Cariatides (“The Caryatids”) in 1842, owed much to the style and manner of  Victor Hugo (1802-1885). The chief quality of his poetry is its technical virtuosity — he experimented with forms such as the ballad and rondeau that had been neglected for 300 years — though contemporaries also admired his poems’ erudition, wit and whimsy. His best-known collection, Les Odes funambulesques (“Fantastic Odes”) published in 1857, is dedicated to Hugo who praised it. Such is the first stanza of Mascarades: Le Carnaval s’amuse!/ Viens le chanter, ma Muse,/En suivant au hasard/ Le bon Ronsard!

de Banville 1854Nadar, Théodore de Banville, 1854. 

henri murger c 1855

Nadar, Henri Murger (1822-1861), Paris, c. 1855. 

Charles PhiliponNadar, Charles Philipon, Paris, 1854. The founder of Le Charivari in 1831, among other popular journals, Charles Philipon (1800-1862) was Nadar’s mentor and an important collaborator in Nadar’s bid to establish himself as a caricaturist. Philipon and Nadar, though from different generations, both shared an energetic and inventive personal character as well as a keen interest, skill, and talent for contemporary caricature (though censorship killed political cartoons after 1851). Charles Philipon, however, being the better businessman, provided Nadar in this period with editor in chief jobs at new magazines that Philipon founded and, until the day he died in 1862, stayed solicitous of Nadar’s future in illustration. Except that, after Charles Philipon died, Nadar lost all interest in the practice.

Charles PhiliponCharles Philipon.

Adrien TournachonAdrien Tournachon (1825-1903), c. 1855. In the mid-to-late 1850’s Adrien collaborated closely with his older brother in the photographic studio’s services.  Their work in this period is often enmeshed so that an exact delineation between them can be difficult to ascertain.  Is this photograph a self portrait or a collaborative (self-)portrait? The photograph presents Adrien at about age thirty, wearing casual attire and posing with a bohemian air marked by a broad-brimmed dark straw hat and holding a hand-rolled and lit cigarette in his mouth. Adrien Tournachon opened a photographic studio at 11, boulevard des Capucines in 1853. The two brothers worked together closely in photography which each also worked in other professions, Nadar as a caricaturist and Adrien as a painter (whom Nadar helped to establish).  Adrien’s photography career included being active in newly-formed photographic societies, securing a patent for a photo-mechanical process, and later specializing  in horse and animal photography as well as other photography-related businesses.

ADRIEN

Charles Deburau Pierrot 1Jean-Charles Deburau (1829-1873) as Pierrot series, c. 1855.  Another collaborative project by Nadar and his brother Adrien. Nadar issued the invitation for Deburau to pose in the studio. Deburau is dressed as Pierrot, the famous commedia dell’arte character. These are rare full-length portraits in Nadar’s oeuvre and include Pierrot in a variety of dramatic poses, some more natural than others, in strongly sculptural light and  shadow. There is Pierrot surprised, Pierrot listening, Pierrot in pain, Pierrot laughing and, most famously, Pierrot photographer which explicitly suggests the performative dialogue  between sitter and photographer.

Pierrot

Pierrot surprised

Pierrot surprised.

pierrot running

Pierrot running.

Pierrot laughingPierrot laughing.

Pierrot listening

Pierrot imploringPierrot imploring.

pierrot with fruit basketPierrot with fruit basket.

pierrot with medicinePierrot with medicine.

pierrot the thief Pierrot the thief.

pierrot in painPierrot in pain.

pierrot with moneyPierrot with coin money.

pierrot jumping through a windowPierrot jumping through a window.

pierrot and envelopePierrot with envelope.

Pierrot photographer

Theophile GautierNadar, Théophile Gautier (1811-1872), Paris, c. 1855. Gautier was a French poet, dramatist, novelist, journalist, and art and literary critic.

gautierThéophile Gautier, c.1856.

Nadar Michelet c 1857Nadar, Jules Michelet (1798-1874), c. 1858. Historian of France.  Nadar positions his camera lens below the subject so that Michelet can look out from above and has arranged the light reflectors to sculpt Michelet’s features in high relief.

Nadar Prince Czartoryski c. 1858Nadar, Prince Adam Jerzy Czartoryski (1770-1861), c. 1858. A Polish patriot, Nadar’s portrait of the prince was exhibited in 1859 at the Société Française de Photographie. In 1848 Nadar had volunteered to fight for the liberation of Poland when Lamartine called for an expeditionary force of 300 Polish and 200 French (including Nadar) to incite revolution against a Russian regime there since 1830. Nadar was captured, spent time in prison in Germany, and returned by foot to Paris.

Auguste PreaultAuguste Préault (1808-1879), Paris, c. 1854. A student of David d’Angers (1788-1856), Préault was a sculptor who first exhibited at the Paris salon in 1833. Works by Préault are in the Louvre, d’Orsay, and other museum collections mainly in France.

louvre-silence 1842
Created in 1842,  the medallion titled Le Silence in the Louvre is one of the most famous works of Auguste Préault, who was the romantic sculptor par excellence. Reduced to its simplest expression, the deeply-engraved artwork — a funereal figure with a finger on the lips evoking the chasm between Life and Death — both fascinates and terrifies. This is the sculptural work on the tomb of Jacob Roblès in Père Lachaise where Préault abandoned recent traditional funerary imagery begun by his mentor David D’Angers of artwork that evokes the person who died, and fashioning in its place an enigmatic and mysterious evocation of death itself. Préault, who died in 1879, is also buried in Père Lachaise.

Nadar E Pelletan 1855-59Nadar, Pierre-Clément-Eugène Pelletan (1813-1884), c. 1857. Protestant minister, mystic, socialist pamphleteer, an associate of George Sand and Lamartine. This is lionizing portrait – gleaming eyes, furrowed brow – that epitomized for the photographer the nobility of the Romantic hero.

molin 1858Nadar, Benoît Molin (1810-1894), Paris, 1858. A student of Baron Gros (1771-1835), Molin was a portrait, genre, Religion and History painter. Molin regularly exhibited at the Salon starting in 1843 and became the Director of Chambéry Musée des beaux-arts in 1850.

Molin_Le_Baiser_rendu_Judas_et_Satan1
Molin, Le Baiser rendu (Judas et Satan), 1840s, Chambéry; musée des beaux-arts.

Nadar Rossini 1856Nadar, Gioachino Rossini (1792-1868). 

Gioachino Rossini: William Tell Overture (1829). London Philharmonic, Alfred Scholz.

Alexandre Dumas pereAlexandre Dumas père (1802-1870), Paris, c. 1855.

 

Based on the 1844 novel Le Comte de Monte Cristo (The Count of Monte Cristo) by Alexandre Dumas père, this excerpt from the 1998 French-Italian TV miniseries finds Edmond Dantès (Gerard Depardieu), who is now the Count of Monte Cristo, encountering his beautiful former fiancée, Mercédès (Ornella Muti). When the count as a young man is unjustly betrayed and sent to the Château d’If – from which he escapes after several years – Mercédès has married not only another man but one of the Count’s betrayers. Though Mercédès regrets marrying Fernand and not waiting for Dantès, she never stops loving Dantès and ends up being miserable for it.

Francoius-Louis LesueurFrançois-Louis Lesueur (1820-1876), Paris, c. 1855. Lesueur was a French actor.

lesueur 1854Lesueur, c. 1855.

Goncourt BrothersNadar (and Adrien Tournachon), Edmond Goncourt (1822-1896) and Jules Goncourt (1830-1870), Paris, c. 1855.

Nadar & Adrien Fremiet 1854Nadar (and Adrien Tournachon), Emmanuel Frémiet (1824-1910), 1854. Sculptor.

Paris PlacedesPyramidesJeanned'Arcequestre Frémiet 1874

Joan of Arc on Horseback, 1874, Place des Pyramides, Paris by Frémiet. The pedestal was designed by the architect Paul Abadie (1812-1884). The model for Joan was Aimée Girod (1856–1937).

Nadar Couder c. 1856

Nadar, Louis-Charles-Auguste-Couder (1789-1873), c. 1856. French painter and student of Jean-Baptiste Regnault (1754-1829) and Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825).

Couder Le Serment du Jeu de Paume, 20 juin 1789Couder,  Le Serment du Jeu de Paume, 20 juin 1789, 1848,  Musée de la Révolution française, Vizelle.

mariette2Nadar, Mariette (Standing Nude), c. 1855. 

Seated Nude Partial draperyNadar, Mimi, c. 1857.

 

draped standing nude 1

Nadar, Draped Standing Nude, c. 1858.

Mademoiselle de Sanzillon, c.1858Mademoiselle de Sanzillon, Paris, c. 1858. 

Finette c. 1857Finette, c. 1857. 

mere marie jamet c. 1860Mère Marie Jamet, c. 1860. From an inscription on the back of the photograph, it is speculated, though by no means certain, that this is the founder and mother superior of the Petites Soeurs des Pauvres (Little Sisters of the Poor).

ernesta grisi 1854Nadar (and Adrien Tournachon), Ernesta Grisi, 1854. 

Mlle de baste c 1855Mademoiselle de Basté, c. 1855. 

musette, c. 1854Nadar (and Adrien Tournachon?), Musette (also Mariette), c. 1855. 

young woman in profile c 1859Young woman in profile, c. 1859.

Jules Janin
Nadar (Adrien Tournachon), Jules Janin (1804-1874), Paris, c. 1855. Known as the “prince of critics,” Janin enjoyed a 40-year-career as a theater critic, novelist, and literary historian from the 1830’s to the 1870’s.

 

KoppKopp (d. 1872), Paris, c. 1857. Kopp was a comic actor at the Théâtre des Variétés, a theatre and “salle de spectacles” on the boulevard Montmartre in Paris. Several opéra bouffe by Jacques Offenbach premiered there in the 1860’s.

14Le Théâtre des Variétés, sur le boulevard Montmartre, à Paris (IIe).

06Le Théâtre des Variétés, Paris.

13Le Théâtre des Variétés, Paris.

Nadar Emile Blavier1Nadar (and Adrien Tournachon),  Émile Blavier, 1854.  A young sculptor who gained recognition at the Salon of 1852.

Buste de fillette au chignon Blavier.jpgBlavier, Buste de fillette au chignon.

Marie LaurentMarie Laurent (1826-1904), Paris, c. 1856. 

Hector BerliozHector Berlioz (1803-1869), Paris, c. 1857. 

Hector Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique: Épisode de la vie d’un artiste … en cinq parties (Fantastic  Symphony: Episode in the Life of an Artist… in Five Parts) was composed  in 1830. and is one of the most important orchestral works of the period. Franz Liszt made a piano transcription of it in 1833. Leonard Bernstein described the symphony as the first musical expedition into psychedelia because of its hallucinatory and dream-like nature. The symphony is in five movements:

  1. Rêveries – Passions (Reveries – Passions) – C minor/C major
  2. Un bal (A Ball) – A major
  3. Scène aux champs (Field scene) – F major
  4. Marche au supplice (March to the Scaffold) – G minor
  5. Songe d’une nuit du sabbat (Dream of the Night of the Sabbath) – C major

The Chicago Symphony Orchestra performances is conducted by Stéphane Denève.

Paul ChenavardPaul Chenavard (1807-1895), Paris, c. 1857. 

Nadar P-A Ravel 1854Nadar, Pierre-Alfred Ravel (1811-1881). Master comic on the Paris stage at the Théâtre du Palais-Royal for a quarter of century. Each brilliant conversationalists, both sitter and photographer were both at the height of their powers.

foyer theatre du Palais RoyalFoyer, Théâtre du Palais-Royal, 38 Rue de Montpensier, (1e).

Théâtre du Palais Royal Salle de-spectacleThéâtre de la Montansier/Théâtre du Palais-Royal, 1er, Paris.

Rosine StolzRosine Stolz (1815-1903), Paris, c.1857. 

Pierre CiceriPierre Cicéri (1782-1868), Paris, c.1857.

JBC CorotJean-Baptiste-Camille Corot (1796-1875), Paris, c. 1857. 

Honore DaumierHonoré Daumier (1808-1879), Paris, c. 1857. Four masterful portraits taken in the same sitting. Nadar and Daumier both started their cartoon careers under Charles Philipon. Daumier started by drawing and was prompted, again by Philipon,  to model unbaked clay figurines of lawmakers in the July Monarchy. For the rest of his long career Daumier was a master in drawing, painting, sculpture and lithography where the contemporary human element was key admired by Delacroix and Baudelaire. Daumier was friends with the sculptor Préault, painters Corot, Daubigny, Rousseau, and Dupré, and writers Théodore de Banville and Théophile Gautier. Although his first large solo exhibition (at Impressionist art dealer Durand Ruel’s gallery) was when the caricaturist was 70 years old, he had already been compared to novelist Balzac and philosopher Saint-Simon in that his art chronicled an era in French history.

Honore Daumier

Honoré Daumier (1808-1879), Paris, c. 1857.

Nadar Daumier

Honoré Daumier (1808-1879), Paris, c. 1857. This portrait of Daumier was exhibited in 1859 at the Société Française de Photographie.

Nadar Daumier 4Honoré Daumier (1808-1879), Paris, c. 1857.

honoré-daumier-caricature-de-photographie---a-collection-of-ten-lithographs
Daumier, Caricature de Photographie-A Collection of Ten Lithographs, lithograph, 36 x 24 cm. (14.2 x 9.4 in.), c. 1840–1867

Daumier The DefenderHonoré Daumier, Le Défenseur (The Defender), 1860.

Daumier_Passé,_présent,_avenir
Daumier, Le passé, le présent, l’avenir, lithographie, 19,6 x 21 cm, Coll. privée,  “La Caricature.”

Gustave DoreGustave Doré (1832-1883), Paris, c. 1857. 

Gustave Dore 2

Gustave Dore 3

Doré 1867 by NadarNadar, Gustave Doré, Paris, 1867. 

Jean JournetJean Journet (1799-1861), Paris, c. 1858. Fourierist “apostle.” Champfleury included Journet in his Excentriques and Nadar looked to achieve a passionate and inspired image in this photographic portrait portrait to offset Courbet’s anti-idealized artwork of Journet included below (Lithograph in black on wove paper, 1850, The Art Institute of Chicago).

Courbet Journet 1850

maria l'antillaiseMaria L’Antillaise, Paris, c. 1858.

maria d'antillaise

young modelYoung Model, Paris, c. 1858. 

Francois GuizotFrançois Guizot (1787-1874), Paris, c. 1857.

moses saphireMoses Saphire (1795-1857), Paris, c. 1857. A cartoonist and satirist known as Maurice Gottlieb.  

eugene DelacroixEugène Delacroix (1798-1863), Paris, 1858.

Two Bearded Heads after Veronese from The Marriage at Cana delacroix 1820
Delacroix, Two Bearded Heads, after Veronese (detail from “The Marriage at Cana”), 1820, oil on canvas.

Delacroix Lion Hunt 1861Delacroix, Lion Hunt (detail), 1861, The Art Institute of Chicago.

adolphe cremieuxAdolphe Crémieux (1796-1880), Paris, c. 1858.

juliette adamJuliette Adam (1835-1936), Paris, c. 1858.

Isidore SeverinIsadore Severin, Baron Taylor (1789-1879), Paris, c. 1858. 

Nadar chennevieres c. 1855Nadar, Philippe de Chennevières-Pointel (1820-1899), c.1855. Museum administrator and scholar. A good friend of Baudelaire who praised Chennevières’ modesty in the face of his humanitarian ideals and work ethic.

emma livryEmma Livry (1842-1863), Paris, c. 1859. 

Nadar self portrait c 1857Nadar, Self Portrait, c. 1858. 

Nadar c 1859Nadar, Self-Portrait, c. 1859. 

Nadar c 1860
Nadar, Self-Portrait, c. 1860.

Nadar in artificial light c 1859

Nadar, Self Portrait in artificial light, c.1859-1860. 

Nadar c 1865
Nadar, Self-Portrait, c. 1865. 

nadar self portraitNadar Self Portrait.

NadarNadar in old age.

giacomo meyerbeerGiacomo Meyerbeer (1791-1864), Paris, 1860. 

Pierre-Joseph ProudhonNadar atelier, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865), Paris, 1862. 

Mikhail BakuninMikhail Bakunin (1814-1876), Paris, c. 1863. 

ManetNadar, Édouard Manet (1832-1883), Paris, c. 1864. 

steamboat-leaving-boulogneManet, Steamboat Leaving Boulogne, 1864, oil on canvas, The Art Institute of Chicago.

Manet Dead Christ with Angels 1864 Met NYManet, Le Christ mort et les anges / Le Christ aux anges (The Dead Christ with Angels), 1864, Oil on canvas, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Nadar Legrand c 1858

Nadar, Legrand, c. 1858. An understudy to Baptise Deburau as Pierrot and a friendly rival to Charles Deburau, Legrand was short and stocky and in his performances was known for his deftness in pantomime to convey character, especially sentiment and tears.

George SandGeorge Sand (1804-1876), Paris, 1864.

Nadar George Sand 1864

Gaspard-Félix Tournachon, dit Nadar. George Sand, vers 1865

Sarah_Bernhardt 1864Sarah Bernhardt (1844-1923), Paris, c. 1864. 

Sarah Bernhardt late teensSarah Bernhardt in her late teens, c. 1859. 

Sarah Bernhardt 1864Sarah Bernhardt (1844-1923), Paris, c. 1864.

Théâtre de la Renaissance1
In 1893 Sarah Bernhardt (1844-1923) took over the direction of the Théâtre de la Renaissance in Paris. Built in 1873, the theater stands next to the Porte Saint-Martin monument constructed in 1674. During the next six years (until 1899) many productions premiered in Bernhardt’s theater: Gismonda, a Greek melodrama in four acts, by Victorien Sardou (1831-1908) in 1894; La Princesse Lointaine, a play based on the story of a 12th-century troubadour, by Edmond Rostand (1868-1918) in 1895; two plays by Maurice Donnay (1859-1945), Amants in 1896 and L’Affranchie in 1898; La Figurante by François, Vicomte de Curel (1854-1928) in 1896; and two other productions in 1898, La Ville morte by Gabriele D’Annunzio (1863-1938) and Lysiane, a five-act play, by Romain Coolus (1868-1952). In 1896, Sarah Bernhardt in the Théâtre de la Renaissance, played the title role in Alfred de Musset’s Lorenzaccio, performing the part at the age of 52 and declared by the critics to be “from beginning to end, and at every moment, incomparably sublime.”

Detail facade above entrance theatre de la Renaissance
Detail, Façade above entrance doors, Théâtre de la Renaissance, Paris (10e).

stage, Le théâtre de la Renaissance à ParisStage, Théâtre de la Renaissance, 20 boulevard Saint-Martin (10th), Paris.

Théâtre de la Renaissance2Théâtre de la Renaissance in Paris. Sarah Bernhardt directed this theater from 1893 to 1899. It was built in 1873.

Carlotta GrisiCarlotta Grisi ( 1819-1899), Paris, 1865. 

 Jules ChampfleuryJules Champfleury (1821-1889), Paris, c. 1865.

Nadar_Champfleury

Gustave CourbetGustave Courbet (1819-1877), Paris, c. 1866. 

Courbet Woman with a Parrot 1866 MetCourbet, Woman With A Parrot, 1866, oil on canvas, 51 x 77 in. (129.5 x 195.6 cm), The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York. When this painting was shown in the Salon of 1866, critics censured Courbet’s “lack of taste” as well as his model’s “ungainly” pose and “disheveled hair.” Yet the provocative picture found favor with a younger generation of artists who shared Courbet’s disregard for academic standards.

Charles-François Daubigny c. 1857Nadar, Charles-François Daubigny (1817-1878), c. 1857. Born near Paris into a family of artists, Daubigny was first taught by his father, the artist Edme François Daubigny. His uncle Pierre Daubigny, a miniaturist, was also influential in his life. Daubigny carried on the tradition by his son Karl Daubigny (1846-1886), an accomplished landscape painter.

Daubigny Village of Groton 1857 San FranciscoDaubigny, The Village of Groton, 1857, Oil On Panel, 29.8 x 53.7 cm (11 3/4 x 21 1/8 in.), Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco.

Nadar Millet c. 1857Nadar, Jean-François Millet (1814-1875), c. 1857. Nadar admired Millet of whom he wrote in 1857 was “one of the most serious talents of the French school.” Some wanted to make Millet’s canvases into sociopolitical manifestos such as in Courbet’s works, but Millet was not intentionally political. Rather Millet’s works looked to depict a toiling peasantry with monumentality and the noble simplicity.

Millet The Angelus c. 1857
Millet, The Angelus, c 1857, Oil on canvas, 55.5 x 66 cm, Musée d’Orsay.

Jacques OffenbachJacques Offenbach (1819-1880), Paris, 1875. 

 

The famous can-can from Orphée aux Enfers (“Orpheus in the Underworld”) composed in 1858.

Charles GarnierCharles Garnier (1825-1898), Paris, 1877. Architect of the opulent Opéra Garnier constructed between 1861 and 1875.  The Palais Garnier  is probably the most famous opera house in the world and one of the symbols of Paris.

opera garnier 1

Le Grand Foyer Opera Garnier Paris

Constance Queniaux 1861Constance Quéniaux (1832-1908), Paris, 1861. 

 

Ernestine Nadar 1854
Ernestine-Constance Nadar (1836-1909), Paris, 1854. 

nadar_photographers_wife1890
Nadar, Ernestine Nadar, 1890.

vitorhugonadar2g
Victor Hugo (1802-1885).

Nadar Victor HugoNadar, Victor Hugo. 

NADAR

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