Monthly Archives: July 2018

Braddock Road: Twelve Springs Camp, Pennsylvania.

National PikeThe Braddock Road, south-central Pennsylvania, March 20, 2010.

The Braddock Road was a military road built in 1755 in what was then British America and is now the United States. It was the first improved road to cross the barrier of the ridge lines of the Appalachians. It was constructed by about 2,500 troops of the Virginia militia and British regulars commanded by General Edward Braddock (1695-1755), part of the expedition to conquer the Ohio Country from the French at the beginning of the French and Indian War (1756-63). George Washington, who was aide-de-camp to Braddock, had pioneered this route a year earlier when he traveled into the Ohio Country and met Native American leader, Tanacharison (1700-1754).  The expedition gave Washington his first field military experience as well as other American military officers whose numbers profited from this military outing later during the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783).

Braddock’s men had to cut a road wide enough to accommodate the wagons and draft animals that accompanied them, as well as the siege artillery that they brought along to use against the new Fort Duquesne established by the French in 1754 at the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers.  Progress was painstakingly slow until Braddock split the force into a lead column of about 1,500 men and the rest as a support column to drag artillery and supplies. The flying column made rapid progress, and with each day, the distance between it and the support column increased. This marker is on the (later) National Pike (Route 40) between Elk Park and Farmington, Pennsylvania.

International Photographs: Tour de l’Horloge (1490-97), Évreux, France, and others. (6 Photos).

Tour de l'Horloge (1490-97) Évreux, France.

Tour de l’Horloge, 1490-97, Évreux, France. November 1, 2002.

Chenonceau (Le Château des Dames), 1514-22, France. May 24, 2005.

Gargouille (Gargoyle) or Chimera (Stryga), Cathédrale Notre Dame de Paris. France. July 12, 1979.

Tourists visit the “gargoyles” on the façade of Notre-Dame de Paris by ascending the south tower to a passageway to the outdoor balustrade of the tower base. A second balustrade at the top of the tower is not open to the public.

The exuberant Gothic design of the Cathedral, a stone structure that dominates the Île de la Cité in the most ancient part of Paris, was built in stages. A project instigated by Maurice de Sully, the Bishop of Paris (in office, 1160-1196), commenced in 1163 with the construction of the choir at the back of the church today. The front portals followed around 1200. The next stage included the towers whose appearance on the Paris skyline began in the 1240’s.

Gargouille (Gargoyle), Cathédrale Notre Dame de Paris, France. July 12, 1979.

From ground level to the top of the cathedral all building details are meticulously construed. The gargoyles of birds, humanoids, chimeras, etc., that dot the medieval building are famous. With changing artistic tastes, the Gothic architecture was greatly reviled in Paris as early as the turn of the fifteenth century. Accompanying high profile political and cultural events in the early nineteenth century–-especially the crowning of Napoléon I (1769-1821) as Emperor of France in Notre Dame de Paris in 1804 followed by the publication of the French Romantic Gothic novel The Hunchback of Notre Dame by Victor Hugo in 1831–-public interest in Notre Dame de Paris and Gothic design generally revived. French architects Eugène Viollet-le-Duc (1814-1879) and Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Lassus (1807-1857) overhauled most of Notre Dame in the 1840’s. The cathedral’s exterior gargoyles also underwent reconstitution though to what extent is not fully known.

Courtyard of Le Prieuré Maurice Denis, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France. October 31, 2002.

The Collegial Church of St. Gertrude, 11th century, Nivelles, Belgium. March 1, 1992.